Liedplural Liederany of a number of particular types of German songas they are referred to in English and French writings. The earliest so-called lieder date from the 12th and 13th centuries and are the works of minnesingerspoets and singers of courtly love Minne. Many surviving Minnelieder reflect southern German origins and are written in a group of manuscripts of somewhat later date.
These songs occur in a number of forms based on poetic models. The lied proper, like many other forms, commonly comprises two sections, the first phrase of music a repeated with different words, and the second phrase Bagain with different words aaB.
This is the Bar form much favoured by German composers and often expanded in various ways. The monophonic single melodic line Minnelieder are virile, abounding in small leaps; they are attractively contoured and make use of modal scales melodic patterns characteristic of medieval and Renaissance music until the advent of the major—minor scale system.
Because musical notation of this period is not precise regarding rhythmic values, the rhythmic interpretation of Minnelieder is controversial. The 14th century brought a decline of the monophonic lied and the introduction of polyphonic lieder for two or more voices or voice and instruments.
The 15th century saw a flowering of polyphonic lieder for as many as four voices singing together. These polyphonic settings, unlike the courtly Minnelieder, are addressed to educated scholars and clergy as well as nobles. Bar form and romantic texts predominate, and through-composed pieces i. The tunes are usually sung by the middle part tenor ; often the parts accompanying the tenor are played on instruments.
The tenor melody is often a preexistent, familiar one, not a tune newly composed for the polyphonic lied.
Franco-Flemish influences appear in the relations among the parts usually three ; sometimes the texture is chordal, otherwise one part may imitate the melody of another voice for part of a phrase. When three parts are present, whether sung or played and sung, the tenor and top part descant form a harmonic unity, while the third part countertenor skips between and below how to check sim card registration name other two.
Polyphonic lieder reached a climax in the midth century with the songs of Ludwig Senfl and his contemporaries. The invention of printing helped disseminate the secular polyphonic lieder, and many of the most popular ones were turned into sacred pieces by simply substituting a new text. Thus lieder became important vehicles for spreading Protestantism. By the late Renaissance c. Under the influence of the new madrigal a polyphonic Italian secular formthe old lied tradition decayed. The 19th century saw German composers again turning to lied production.
Late 18th- and early 19th-century Romanticism gave great impetus to serious popular poetry, and many poems of such masters as Goethe were set by lied composers. Franz Schubertwho composed more than lieder, Robert SchumannJohannes Brahmsand Hugo Wolf are among the finest 19th-century lied composers. Although the verse in lieder often was mediocrefor the Romanticspoetry and music were of equal importance.
Romantic lieder are generally for a solo voice with piano accompaniment, which often required a virtuoso technique. The songs were primarily salon music: individual lieder lack the scope of contemporary opera arias, but are more intimate and emotionally refined.A Hanseatic Festival: German Renaissance Music is a disc that, when it came out, had its field mostly to itself.
The German Renaissance in general is underrepresented on recordings, and the idea, laid out in the liner notes, of focusing on the Stadtpfeifern, the city musicians of mercantile northern Germany, is delightful and potentially instructive: anyone who has done cursory reading about J. Bach has encountered the concept of the city musician, but few of us know much about them.
A Hanseatic Festival contains some fascinating pieces of background information. Did you know that the word "oboe" derives ultimately from Arabic naubat, the Islamic tower watchman who punctuated his vigil by sounding of reed and percussion instruments? And the music is a pleasingly varied collection of indoor and outdoor works from the early seventeeth century; the city musician was a jack-of-all-trades who supplied ceremonial, religious, and domestic music as needed. The English Cornett and Sackbut Ensemble is not out of place, for English musicians, including composer Thomas Simpson represented here, were active in Germany during this time.
Familiar tunes -- "Nun komm der Heiden Heiland," "In dulci jubilo" -- weave in and out of the music. Yet there is certainly room for another ensemble to take a crack at this repertory. Ensemble director Keith McGowan 's liner notes deal in vague generalities; much of the music on the disc isn't specifically mentioned at all. McGowan has apparently contributed compositionally to some of the music; there's nothing in the notes that tells us what.
For the listener who likes to fill in the blanks imaginatively, the sparseness of the notes may not be a defect, but others may find them off-putting. The recorded sound on offer from England's Deux-Elles label is too close-up, full of buzzy breath noise. The use of a countertenor in some of the more domestic pieces can certainly be questioned, and countertenor Mark Chambers is intonationally shaky at times. A Hanseatic Festival has the feel of a not-fully-realized project, but those interested in German Renaissance history and culture will want to own it.
Rainy Day Relaxation Road Trip. Romantic Evening Sex All Themes. Features Interviews Lists. Streams Videos All Posts. Release Date February 22, Genre Classical. Styles Chamber Music Vocal Music.
Track Listing. Samuel Scheidt. Bekehrung zum Herren Christo. Heinrich Albert. Paduana Lachrymae, for keyboard after J. Melchior Schildt. Nun komm der Heiden Heiland, motet for 8 voices.The German Renaissancepart of the Northern Renaissancewas a cultural and artistic movement that spread among German thinkers in the 15th and 16th centuries, which developed from the Italian Renaissance. Many areas of the arts and sciences were influenced, notably by the spread of Renaissance humanism to the various German states and principalities.
There were many advances made in the fields of architecture, the arts, and the sciences. Germany produced two developments that were to dominate the 16th century all over Europe: printing and the Protestant Reformation.
One of the most important German humanists was Konrad Celtis — Celtis studied at Cologne and Heidelbergand later travelled throughout Italy collecting Latin and Greek manuscripts. Heavily influenced by Tacitushe used the Germania to introduce German history and geography. Eventually he devoted his time to poetry, in which he praised Germany in Latin.
Another important figure was Johann Reuchlin — who studied in various places in Italy and later taught Greek. He studied the Hebrew languageaiming to purify Christianity, but encountered resistance from the church. The Renaissance was largely driven by the renewed interest in classical learning, and was also the result of rapid economic development.
At the beginning of the 16th century, Germany referring to the lands contained within the Holy Roman Empire was one of the most prosperous areas in Europe despite a relatively low level of urbanization compared to Italy or the Netherlands. More importantly, book-printing developed in Germany, and German printers dominated the new book-trade in most other countries until well into the 16th century.
The concept of the Northern Renaissance or German Renaissance is somewhat confused by the continuation of the use of elaborate Gothic ornament until well into the 16th century, even in works that are undoubtedly Renaissance in their treatment of the human figure and other respects. Classical ornament had little historical resonance in much of Germany, but in other respects Germany was very quick to follow developments, especially in adopting printing with movable typea German invention that remained almost a German monopoly for some decades, and was first brought to most of Europeincluding France and Italy, by Germans.
Printmaking by woodcut and engraving was already more developed in Germany and the Low Countries than elsewhere in Europe, and the Germans took the lead in developing book illustrations, typically of a relatively low artistic standard, but seen all over Europe, with the woodblocks often being lent to printers of editions in other cities or languages.
He rapidly became famous all over Europe for his energetic and balanced woodcuts and engravings, while also painting. Though retaining a distinctively German style, his work shows strong Italian influence, and is often taken to represent the start of the German Renaissance in visual art, which for the next forty years replaced the Netherlands and France as the area producing the greatest innovation in Northern European art.
Most leading German artists became Protestants, but this deprived them of painting most religious works, previously the mainstay of artists' revenue. Martin Luther had objected to much Catholic imagery, but not to imagery itself, and Lucas Cranach the Eldera close friend of Luther, had painted a number of "Lutheran altarpieces", mostly showing the Last Suppersome with portraits of the leading Protestant divines as the Twelve Apostles.
This phase of Lutheran art was over beforeprobably under the more fiercely aniconic influence of Calvinismand religious works for public display virtually ceased to be produced in Protestant areas. Presumably largely because of this, the development of German art had virtually ceased by aboutbut in the preceding decades German artists had been very fertile in developing alternative subjects to replace the gap in their order books.
Cranach, apart from portraits, developed a format of thin vertical portraits of provocative nudes, given classical or Biblical titles. It is an intensely emotional work that continues the German Gothic tradition of unrestrained gesture and expression, using Renaissance compositional principles, but all in that most Gothic of forms, the multi-winged triptych. With Altdorfer in the lead, the school produced the first examples of independent landscape art in the West nearly 1, years after Chinain both paintings and prints.
Hans Holbein the Elder and his brother Sigismund Holbein painted religious works in the late Gothic style. Hans the Elder was a pioneer and leader in the transformation of German art from the Gothic to the Renaissance style. His son, Hans Holbein the Younger was an important painter of portraits and a few religious works, working mainly in England and Switzerland.Renaissance music is music written in Europe during the Renaissance.
Consensus among music historians—with notable dissent—has been to start the era aroundwith the end of the medieval era, and to close it aroundwith the beginning of the baroque period, therefore commencing the musical Renaissance about a hundred years after the beginning of the Renaissance as understood in other disciplines.
As in the other arts, the music of the period was significantly influenced by the developments which define the early modern period: the rise of humanistic thought; the recovery of the literary and artistic heritage of ancient Greece and Rome; increased innovation and discovery; the growth of commercial enterprise; the rise of a bourgeois class; and the Protestant Reformation. From this changing society emerged a common, unifying musical language, in particular the polyphonic style of the Franco-Flemish school.
The invention of the Gutenberg press made distribution of music and musical theory possible on a wide scale. Demand for music as entertainment and as an activity for educated amateurs increased with the emergence of a bourgeois class. Dissemination of chansons, motets, and masses throughout Europe coincided with the unification of polyphonic practice into the fluid style which culminated in the second half of the sixteenth century in the work of composers such as Palestrina, Lassus, Victoria and William Byrd.
These musicians were highly sought throughout Europe, particularly in Italy, where churches and aristocratic courts hired them as composers and teachers. Opera arose at this time in Florence as a deliberate attempt to resurrect the music of ancient Greece. Music, increasingly freed from medieval constraints, in range, rhythm, harmony, form, and notation, became a vehicle for new personal expression. Composers found ways to make music expressive of the texts they were setting.
Secular music absorbed techniques from sacred music, and vice versa. Popular secular forms such as the chanson and madrigal spread throughout Europe. Courts employed virtuoso performers, both singers and instrumentalists.
Music also became more self-sufficient with its availability in printed form, existing for its own sake. Many familiar modern instruments including the violin, guitar, lute and keyboard instrumentsdeveloped into new forms during the Renaissance responding to the evolution of musical ideas, presenting further possibilities for composers and musicians to explore. Modern woodwind and brass instruments like the bassoon and trombone also appeared; extending the range of sonic color and power.
From the Renaissance era both secular and sacred music survives in quantity, and both vocal and instrumental. Numerous early music ensembles specializing in music of the period give concert tours and make recordings, using a wide range of interpretive styles.
One of the most pronounced features of early Renaissance European art music was the increasing reliance on the interval of the third in the Middle Ages, thirds had been considered dissonances. This was possible because of a greatly increased vocal range in music—in the Middle Ages, the narrow range made necessary frequent crossing of parts, thus requiring a greater contrast between them.Renaissance music is vocal and instrumental music written and performed in Europe during the Renaissance era.
Consensus among music historians has been to start the era aroundwith the end of the medieval era, and to close it aroundwith the beginning of the Baroque period, therefore commencing the musical Renaissance about a hundred years after the beginning of the Renaissance as it is understood in other disciplines. As in the other arts, the music of the period was significantly influenced by the developments which define the Early Modern period: the rise of humanistic thought; the recovery of the literary and artistic heritage of Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome ; increased innovation and discovery; the growth of commercial enterprises; the rise of a bourgeois class; and the Protestant Reformation.
From this changing society emerged a common, unifying musical language, in particular, the polyphonic style this means music with multiple, independent melody lines performed simultaneously of the Franco-Flemish schoolwhose greatest master was Josquin des Prez.
The invention of the printing press in made it cheaper and easier to distribute music and music theory texts on a wider geographic scale and to more people. Prior to the invention of printing, written music and music theory texts had to be hand-copied, a time-consuming and expensive process.
Demand for music as entertainment and as a leisure activity for educated amateurs increased with the emergence of a bourgeois class. Relative political stability and prosperity in the Low Countriesalong with a flourishing system of music education in the area's many churches and cathedrals allowed the training of large numbers of singers, instrumentalists, and composers. These musicians were highly sought throughout Europe, particularly in Italy, where churches and aristocratic courts hired them as composers, performers, and teachers.
Since the printing press made it easier to disseminate printed music, by the end of the 16th century, Italy had absorbed the northern musical influences with VeniceRomeand other cities becoming centers of musical activity. This reversed the situation from a hundred years earlier.
Operaa dramatic staged genre in which singers are accompanied by instruments, arose at this time in Florence. Opera was developed as a deliberate attempt to resurrect the music of ancient Greece OED Music was increasingly freed from medieval constraints, and more variety was permitted in range, rhythm, harmony, form, and notation. On the other hand, rules of counterpoint became more constrained, particularly with regard to treatment of dissonances.
In the Renaissance, music became a vehicle for personal expression. Composers found ways to make vocal music more expressive of the texts they were setting.
Secular music absorbed techniques from sacred musicand vice versa. Popular secular forms such as the chanson and madrigal spread throughout Europe.
Courts employed virtuoso performers, both singers and instrumentalists. Music also became more self-sufficient with its availability in printed form, existing for its own sake. Precursor versions of many familiar modern instruments including the violinguitarlute and keyboard instruments developed into new forms during the Renaissance.
These instruments were modified to respond to the evolution of musical ideas, and they presented new possibilities for composers and musicians to explore. Early forms of modern woodwind and brass instruments like the bassoon and trombone also appeared; extending the range of sonic color and increasing the sound of instrumental ensembles. During the 15th century, the sound of full triads became common, and towards the end of the 16th century the system of church modes began to break down entirely, giving way to the functional tonality the system in which songs and pieces are based on musical "keys"which would dominate Western art music for the next three centuries.
An enormous diversity of musical styles and genres flourished during the Renaissance. These can be heard on recordings made in the 20th and 21st century, including masses, motets, madrigals, chansons, accompanied songs, instrumental dances, and many others. Beginning in the late 20th century, numerous early music ensembles were formed. Early music ensembles specializing in music of the Renaissance era give concert tours and make recordings, using modern reproductions of historical instruments and using singing and performing styles which musicologists believe were used during the era.
One of the most pronounced features of early Renaissance European art music was the increasing reliance on the interval of the third and its inversion, the sixth in the Middle Agesthirds and sixths had been considered dissonances, and only perfect intervals were treated as consonances: the perfect fourth the perfect fifththe octaveand the unison.
List of Renaissance composers
The beginning of the 15th century showed simplification, with the composers often striving for smoothness in the melodic parts. The modal as opposed to tonalalso known as "musical key", an approach developed in the subsequent Baroque music era, c.
The movement from the D minor chord to the G Major chord is an interval of a perfect fourth. The movement from the G Major chord to the C Major chord is also an interval of a perfect fourth.
This later developed into one of the defining characteristics of tonality during the Baroque era.The Renaissance Music Period covers the time from c. We are going to look at the key features of Renaissance music so you can get a good basic understanding of the era. It is used to describe an age of new discoveries and exploration from c.
This period was a time of great political and social upheaval — events such as the Protestant Reformation had a huge impact upon the life in the Western world. There was also an increase in humanistic thought, which challenged the supremacy of the church. It was also a time of great development in music and the arts. Whilst this division has its limitations, it is quite a helpful way of gaining an overview of the period.
Early Renaissance music was dominated by the Latin Mass due to the supremacy of the Catholic church. As a result, the sacred music was mostly polyphonic masses and motets in Latin for use in church.
Modal counterpoint was the dominant composition technique probably due to its close relationship with liturgical plainchant. Although there was a steady movement away from the church as humanistic thought increased, churches remained very important places for training musicians and singers. As the period went on and the Protestant Reformation gathered pace, music was written for use in Protestant churches — i. Secular music in the early Renaissance was very dependent upon the courtswhich could finance and support musicians.
CC BY 2. Composers tried to get increasing emotion into the pieces. Secular Renaissance music was mostly vocal musicbut instrumental music in its own right developed instead of just being accompaniment for vocals or dance accompaniment. Popular vocal genres also influenced composers who used simplified basslines which highlighted a smaller number of closely related harmonies.
This laid foundation for the more complex chord progressions of the Baroque era. Early Renaissance composers mostly came from northern France or the Low Countries because of the strong court system, which supported musicians in these regions. In the late Renaissance, Italy became an increasingly important musical centre. Here are some of the most well known Renaissance composers:. Guillaume Du Fay — wrote music for church based on existing Gregorian chant.
John Taverner Thomas Tallis — composed music during the reigns of 4 monarchs!! Later Renaissance Composers:. Allegri and Palestrina — both produced vast choral works.The cover blurb for this release by the Cleveland, OH, early music ensemble Ciaramella quotes a critic who praises the musicians for their ability to play "with the ease of jazz musicians improvising on a theme. For the German Renaissance world was full of individual musicians and ensembles who elaborated on preexisting models, much as a jazz musician would.
The music they made is only incompletely preserved in manuscripts of the era. Such anthologies as the Buxheim Organ Book and various instrumental ensemble collections are full of imaginative instrumental treatments of tunes imported from somewhere else, and this disc of essentially scholarly origin, but not a bit less musical for it gives a good idea of what went on.
Give a listen to the three different versions of Dufay 's chanson Se la face ay pale If my face is pale, trackstwo for organ, and one for the combination of shawms, slide trumpet, and sackbut; each treats the original in a different way. The disc, alternating pieces played on the organ with recorder-dominated settings and those for the louder shawm and trumpet, also introduces the listener to the distinct but overlapping categories of loud or "alta" and quiet or "bassa" instruments and groupings, the former likely intended for outdoor performance.
There are also a few vocal pieces, and a few conventionally vocal pieces performed instrumentally -- that boundary was porous, too. And finally there was the tendency, especially strong in German lands, to traverse the line between sacred and secular, even within the limits of a single piece such as Wer ich ein Falck, track 7.
The playing is very tight, and the program constantly takes turns that illuminate the nature of the repertoire hear the unexpected instrumental versions of movements from Isaac 's Missa je ne fais plus, tracks without ever becoming merely didactic -- the album is varied and enjoyable throughout.
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Sacred and Secular Music from Renaissance Germany
Drinking Hanging Out In Love. Introspection Late Night Partying. Rainy Day Relaxation Road Trip. Romantic Evening Sex All Themes. Features Interviews Lists. Streams Videos All Posts. Release Date January 17, Genre Classical. Styles Choral. Track Listing. Nova vobis gaudia. Nicolas Grenon.
Se la face ay pale, chanson setting after Dufay? Anonymous, Buxheimer Orgelbuch. Se la face ay pale, ballade for 3 voices. Guillaume Dufay.
Outline of the Renaissance
Untitled work, for ensemble from D-Mbs Mus. Anonymous, German. Gaude, virgo, mater Jesu Christe, motet. Heinrich Finck.J. S. Bach - Sonatas & Partitas For Lute